In a middle-class tomb just east of the Nile River in what was Upper Nubia, a woman offers a glimpse of how two met civilizations met, mingled and a new pharaonic dynasty arose. Her tomb was Egyptian, but she was buried in the Nubian style — placed in a flexed position on her side and resting on a bed. Around her neck she wore amulets of the Egyptian god Bes, the protector of households.
Found in 2015, the Nubian woman is, according to Stuart Tyson Smith, a professor of archaeology and chair of the Department of Anthropology at UC Santa Barbara, a prime example of “cultural entanglement,” the process by which colonizing powers and indigenous people influence one another and change over time.
In a paper accepted for publishing in American Anthropologist, Michele Buzon of Purdue University and Smith explore cultural identity and transformation in the ancient village of Tombos in what is now northern Sudan. “Entanglement and the Formation of Ancient Nubian Napatan State” details the findings from Smith and Buzon’s excavations of cemeteries in Tombos, which became an important colonial hub after the Egyptians conquered Nubia around 1500 BCE.
“You get this really interesting entangled culture blending different elements in really different ways, but also there seems to be a lot of individual choice involved,” Smith explained. “It’s not just a matter of the two cultures mash up and then you get this new hybrid thing that’s consistent. There seems to be a lot of individual choice — whether or not you want a Nubian bed and/or an Egyptian coffin and/or to be wrapped like a mummy or whether or not you want an Egyptian-style amulet and/or Nubian ivory jewelry.”
Title: Colonizar el Dolor: la interpelación ideológica del Banco Mundial en América Latina: el caso argentino desde Blumberg a Cromañón
Author: Murillo Susana
Publisher: CLACSO (Buenos Aires)
Print ISBN: 978-987118390-6
Susana Murillo, important Argentinean philosopher and sociologist presents his book Colonizing the Suffering where she examines painstakingly how the ideology is built by intervention of international financial-led organisms as World Bank and IMF. The financial hegemony of centre is granted by the loans that caused a great economic dependency. To accelerate the colonization, these organisms draw an ideology, disseminated by the media that points out on the corruption of state, its decline, or even its impossibility to protect the common-interests. Because of the failures of neo-liberalism to promote adjustments in Latin American states, during 90s decade, the disciplinary control have changed to a new discourse.
Now, industrial powers introduce a new need which consists to place citizenry over the sate. That way, elite constitutes disciplinary instrument of control that moulds not only public opinion but also social consciousness. These types of ideologies generate a great sentiment of distrust accompanied with a broad sentiment of abandonment that citizenry faces.
Although Auschwitz and the human violations perpetrated in Nazi extermination camps during the Second World War are enrooted in the human nature, Europe faced a turning point in the way of considering the ethic fields. The radical evil represents, for the American philosopher Richard Bernstein, an urgency to understand why Auschwitz took room and of course if this may be repeated. Based on the legacy of Kant, Schelling and Arendt, Bernstein argues that there is a dichotomy around our idea of evil.
Human beings can be considered a good creation but destined to be evil or to be good with the passing of time. Certainly, as Kant put it, neither evil nor good, humans adopt certain attitudes according to their decisions (willkur) that determine their future behavior. Beyond the culture or the rules, moral inclinations seem to be created to the personal will. At some extent, these decisions are explained by means of random since there is no causality that may influence in human liberty. If the evil is defined as a sacrifice of moral order in view of personal incentive, it is difficult to explain why people do the good in some occasions, and evil in others. This keeps beyond the human scrutiny. Besides, the law and moral conditions do not suffice to lead human will to goodness.
Title: The Myth of Hero, morphology and semantic of heroic archetype
Author: Hugo Francisco Bauzá
Publisher: Fondo de Cultura Económica (Buenos Aires)
Print ISBN: 978-950-557-245-8
One of more characteristic features of modernity seems to be the passion that citizens feel for their sports. Even though in different manners, many people are today prone to consider these types of games as a mean of social upward worldwide. For part of the third world, families encourage their sons to play soccer or other discipline as a form of alleviating the poverty and improving material conditions wherein they live; in a same manner, in First World countries invest a considerable amount of money in training their athletes with emphasis on a good performance in international competition. Even if classical anthropology has devoted considerable attention in the study of myths in ancient and contemporanean tribes, less attention was given to the influence of mythical archetype in modern sports.
Metaphorically, figure of Hero is imposed over the rest of mortals by divine desires; their names, feats and travesies are reminded in the light of oral tradition passed from generation to generation. Under such a context, we examine The Myth of Hero, a work authored initially by Professor Hugo Francisco Bauzá who studied rigorously universal categories of heroism present in ancient and modern civilizations.
Following the contributions of Lord Raglan and V. Propp, Bauzá dwells on the consecutive variables that characterize the life of heroes; beyond the boundaries of cultures all legends and mythical corpus share similar points of discussion in relation to this topic. To put this in brutally, these types of outstanding people are born from a mother who is a goddess or a virgin. Even though their birth occurred in strange circumstances it is common to denote that one or both parents belong to aristocracy or even nobility. Frequently, in their childhood heroes are kidnapped from the arms of their mothers and adopted by a humble family.
Title: Democratic Innovation in the South. Participation and Representation in Asia, Africa & Latin America
Edited by: Ciska Raventós
Series: South-South collection
Print ISBN: 978-987-1183-95-1
“Democratic innovation in the South” is a book edited by Ciska Raventós and participation of many authors, where the promises of democracy, the decline of trust in nation-state as well as the derived economic problems, which citizenry should face, are widely examined. Even if each chapter may be separately read, this text keeps a common thread according to two relevant aspects of politics, the representation of institutions and their commitment in the way of practising the politics. Although it is important to mention the recent process of democratization in Latin America and South has generated a place of inclusion and participation, univocally it seems to be still not enough.
The dichotomies of democracies and the social problems, which she generates, are some of the pending question this book tries to resolve. Some developing countries adopted democracy as primary option of government thinking their material asymmetries will be automatically solved. However, their situation not only has not been improved. Frequently, the implementation of economic policies is done ignoring the demands of citizens; in others, the role of citizens in this process is over-valorised.
Four sections encompasses this compilation, the first refers to the role of civil society in the processes of democratization and its impact on public space. Investigations conduced as Dagnino, Olvera and Panfichi, and Chaguaceda Noriega shows the needs of reconceptualising the importance of participation post dictatorships. The new movement faces serious challenges and problems at time of dialoguing with the former actors that forms the status-quo. Rather, the second section explores the connection between democracy and social conflict.
Continua a leggere