Antrocom Online Journal of Anthropology



ISSN 1973-2880

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volume 10, number 2, 2014

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Impact of Flood and Siltation on Socio-Economy A Case Study of Dhemaji Revenue Circle, District Dhemaji, Assam
by MANDIRA BURAGOHAIN, MONIMUGDHA BHUYAN

Dhemaji district of Assam is very prone to flood and siltation because of various hydro-meteorological and topographical characteristics of the basin in which it is situated. Jiadhal, the main river of Dhemaji district, has long been considered as a problematic river in the history of Assam due to re-current and extensive flooding and siltation. Flood and siltation in the Jiadhal basin is characterized by their extremely large magnitude, high frequency and extensive devastation. An extensive field study has been done along the river Jiadhal. Household survey was carried out with detailed and exhaustive questionnaire. Statistical methods were applied to understand the intensity of impact of the river on socio- economic activities of the population. It has been found that the extensive flood and siltation in the basin has changed their socio economic status and have adapted and coped with the new environmental change in the riverine areas of the Dhemaji district. These hazards posed threat to the local people who lived along the river. Losing of residential and agricultural land are main issue and problematic issue. The exploitation of the land, proper management and control of water resources are of vital importance for bringing prosperity in the pre dominantly agro based economy of this district. The paper light on the overview of socio economic impact of the siltation and flood on the population in the area near the river Jiadhal to understand household’s, mapping method which local people have used to mitigate and to protect siltation and flood and to suggest some suitable measure.

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Warmth, Competence e Morality I fondamenti della percezione sociale
by STEFANO MENICOCCI

Nel classificare le virtù umane, quelle importanti per il raggiungimento della felicità individuale ma anche quelle necessarie per la costruzione di una comunità solidale, Aristotele (Et. Nich. 6, 12, 24) include tra le maggiori la socievolezza e l’abilità, intesa quest’ultima come capacità di agire per raggiungere gli scopi prefissati. In epoche recenti proprio queste due categorie, intese non più come valori bensì come strumenti euristici, sono state usate dalla psicologia sociale per indagare le basi della percezione sociale, soprattutto in relazione al diverso.

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PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Age Estimation from the Rib by Components Method Analysis in Indian females
by MAHESH CHAND MEENA, YASHODA RANI, G. K. SHARMA

The sternal ends of the ribs are a reliable method of age estimation from late adolescence to old age. Iscan et al developed a phase analysis method based on the morphologic changes at the sternal extremity of the fourth rib, is one of the best effective for age estimation at death. The present study is designed to evaluate the applicability of Component method developed by Iscan et al, to Indian females. The sample consisted of fourth ribs on right side from 63 females of known age and race. Statistical analysis indicated that these changes were age related and applicable to Indian females also.

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Femininity as Divinity Depiction of Goddesses at Kailash Temple Ellora
by DR. RAJPAL, KUSHAL PARKASH

The sculptural representation of the Indian goddesses carries divine procreative powers in exaggeration of the globular pendulousness of breasts. Accordingly, there is an emphasis on heavy hips and pudenda3. There are inherent movements and livelihood in Indian sculptural art. They are depicted sometimes in a posture of dancing quite often modelled in relief rather than sculptured in the full round. The Indian artist relied more on suggestiveness –the expression of the eyes, the hand gestures, the flexibility of the body, the force of the body and the physical proportions as per the context. The use of abstract meanings through gratifying sculptures within the realm of religious connotations was an artistic tradition. The emphasis has been given to the spirituality through the pleasurable imagery of the human mind. The phenomena emerge out as an experience of divine discourse through the worldly desires.

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The Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Soliga Tribe on Eradication of Lantana Camara and their Livelihood. Through Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act at Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India
by MADEGOWDA C., C. USHA RAO

The Lantana camara weed is wildly spreading in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary and it has made a negative impact on animals and plant species, because these animals are facing food insecurity. The Soliga tribals livelihood depends on the forest for Non–timber forest products and the daily consumption of items like tubers, leaves, fruits, mushrooms etc. lantana weed can be controlled through removing the lantana weed in the same places of the forest for a minimum of five years and they observed that native species are growing back where the lantana was removed. It helps both, the biodiversity conservation as well as the livelihood of the Soligas. The Lantana camara can be removed under the scheme of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

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How much mobile we are?
by MAXIMILIANO E. KORSTANJE, FRANCISCO MUÑOZ DE ESCALONA

The social sciences have adopted the paradigm of mobility as unquestionable. This becomes in an ideological instrument to justify many practices and covering others. Nonetheless, the capitalist ethos is far away of promoting mobility, strengthens its forms of production on sedentary logic. Travels are only circular and always return to the same point of departure. In this essay-review, we trigger a hot debate in order for J. Urry´s thesis to be revisited.

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Some Characteristics of Ethnic Identity Case Study: Migrants from Serbia and Montenegro to Denmark
by GORAN RAJOVIĆ

The following text is a contribution to the study of migration, in order to be closer to the main problems of contemporary migration flows from Serbia and Montenegro to Denmark, through the presentation of various data and results obtained in the current studies of the phenomenon of migration. Attention is paid to economic migration, with an emphasis on the characteristics of ethnic identity perceived from the point of view: family ritual practices associated with religious holidays, life cycle of an individual (birth, marriage, death), use of traditional foods, drinks, music and games in festive occasions, possession and use of objects from their homeland (inherited and acquired) with regard to the identity of the elements of traditional attitudes and practices of the respondents. Since the notion of ethnic identity complex, it is necessary to considered in the more theoretical approach or framework. Therefore, there are two interpretations: one given by the respondents, and other researchers. Serbian and Montenegrin communities of migrants, although not many (about 8,000), is interesting for researchers, because in the middle of Denmark that is economically dependent, maintained their ethnic or social identity.

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PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Paleopatologia e marker occupazionali dei reperti scheletrici rinvenuti nella Cappella di San Floriano, Rio di Pusteria (V-XVII sec.) Aspetti antropologici del femore
by ALBERTO ZANATTA

Nel 1998, durante dei lavori di restauro della cappella di San Floriano a Rio di Pusteria (Bz) sono stati trovati 30 m3 di reperti ossei disposti caoticamente e non in connessione anatomica risalenti al periodo che va dal V al XVII secolo. Le indagini antropologiche si sono concentrate sull’analisi degli 8484 elementi femorali ritrovati, ricostruendo le patologie, i marker occupazionali, la demografia e lo stile di vita e di salute della popolazione.

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

The Perception of Color and The Meaning of Brilliance Among Archaic and Ancient Populations and Its Reflections on Language
by SANDRA BUSATTA

Although it may seem strange, it is a fact that color in archeology has been underestimated and its importance in building the biography of objects and bodies has long been ignored by archaeologists. Only recently, thanks to the work of anthropologists, linguists and cognitive scientists, archaeologists have begun to realize that color or the lack thereof is not a simple artistic expression or lack of it. On the one hand, this idea of art, as an abstract concept, it is borrowed from art history, resulting in misunderstandings and ethnocentric biases. A decoration on an object, on the other hand, is considered useful only to classify styles and dates, but has only recently been considered a real source of information to include at least a small part of the mental world of our ancestors.

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Socio Cultural Barriers of Girls’ Educational Attainment: Experiences From Rural Bangladesh
by RIPON KUMAR SARKAR, MOHOSHIN REZA, ELIAS HOSSAIN

Girls’ education is known as an essential component to skilled human resource development and for enhancing their socio-economic status in all societies across the world. It has been recognized as panacea to sustainable social development. Using qualitative research methodology, this research was aimed at exploring socio-cultural barriers of girls’ education in northern rural Bangladesh. Using a qualitative research guideline, total forty five participants including five key informants were interviewed singly. Findings revealed that traditional gendered norms hinder girls’ educational attainment. Specifically, it was found that girls were less emphasized in their families while it comes to educational attainment because of patriarchal norm. It was also found that economic insolvency, religious misinterpretation, child marriage and gender insensitive education system limit girls’ education in rural Bangladesh. Program addressing men attitudes toward women is needed to be launched. For ensuring girls education of marginal households, effective awareness program is also suggested.

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PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Body Mass Index and Chronic Energy Deficiency among Adult Male Lodhas and Kharias of Mayurbhanj, Odisha. Comparison with other tribal populations of Eastern India
by MONALI GOSWAMI

Odisha is one of the most backward states in India. Naturally its reflection will be felt in the tribal communities also. There exists scanty information of the prevalence of under-nutrition among the tribal population of Odisha. In view of this, the objective of the present study is to report the anthropometric characteristics and determine the nutritional status, based on BMI, of the adult male Lodhas and Kharias, two particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PTGs) of Mayurbhanj district of Odisha, India. A comparison is also made with other tribal males of Eastern India. A total of 204 Lodha (from three villages) and 157 Kharia (from five villages) adult (>18 years) men of Mayurbhanj district, Odisha were studied. Height and weight were recorded and the body mass index (BMI) was computed using the standard equation. Nutritional status was evaluated using internationally accepted BMI guidelines. Lodha males had significantly higher mean height (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001) and BMI (p<0.1) compared with the Kharias. Both the Lodha (48.5%) as well as the Kharia (50.3%) males had similar high rates of Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED). According to the WHO classification of public health problem of low BMI, the prevalence of CED was very high (≥40%) in both these groups, indicating a critical situation. This paper also provides strong evidence that, in general, tribal population of Eastern India are experiencing serious or critical nutritional stress. Hence immediate appropriate nutritional intervention programs are needed for implementation among all these ethnic groups.

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