Antrocom Online Journal of Anthropology



ISSN 1973-2880

Current Issue

volume 9, number 2, 2013

PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Stature Estimation from the Dimensions of Foot in Females
by JITENDER PRATAP SINGH, MAHESH CHAND MEENA, YASHODA RANI, GIRISH KUMAR SHARMA

Stature reconstruction is important as it provides a forensic anthropological estimate of the height of a person in the living state – playing a vital role in identification of individual. Height estimation by measurement of various long bones has been attempted by several workers with variable degree of success. Each worker has derived his own formula for calculating the stature from long bones. However, foot measurement has not frequently been used for this.

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The Sickle Cell Anemia health problems. Traditional and Modern treatment practices among the Soliga tribes at B.R.Hills, South India
by MADEGOWDA C., C. USHA RAO

The Sickle Cell Disease or the Sickle cell anemia common genetic disease affects millions of people worldwide. Many Soliga tribals suffer from the genetic disorder of the Sickle Cell Disease, 4.2% of the Soligas have AS type of Sickle cell trait (heterozygous), 0.2% of the Soligas have the Sickle cell anemia (homozygous), and the remaining 95.6% of the Soligas have normal haemoglobin, Traditionally, they include different types of folic acid related green leaves, fruits, and tubers in their daily diet which helps in the natural control of the disease since there is a lack of Sickle cell anemia treatment facilities in the tribal areas. This paper will focus on the spread of the Sickle Cell Disease among the Soligas, including their food habits, traditional treatments, and the different types of pains which the patients are facing, as well as their awareness and expected Sickle cell anemia steps to help in curbing it.

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Sexual Dimorphism in Mandibular Ramus of South Indian Population
by JAMES D. RAJ, SINDHU RAMESH

Background: The determination of sex and estimation of stature are among the important aspect of forensic anthropology and vital in medico-legal investigations. Aim: The purpose of the present study is to analysis of sexual dimorphism in the mandible of South Indian origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 male and 60 female adult dry mandibles were evaluated .Six parameters were taken into considerations, the values were measured and data recorded. Statistical Analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: The present study showed that one of the parameter analyzed, superior-inferior height (right side) was found to be significantly different among males and females. Conclusion: We conclude that the mandible can be a very useful tool for sex determination in this population after a comprehensive study has been undertaken.

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The Lombard necropolis of Dueville (Northeast Italy, 7th-9th c. AD): burial rituals, paleodemography, anthropometry and paleopathology.
by NICOLA CARRARA

The necropolis of Dueville (Northeast Italy, 7th-9th c. AD) is one of the biggest Lombard necropolis in Italy: at present, more than 500 burials have been excavated. This report regards the anthropological analysis of 217 individuals, 74 sub-adult and 143 adults, excavated from 2000 to 2009. Sex was estimated for 134 individuals and sex ratio was 146 men to 100 women. The pits are west-east oriented, with skulls at west. Skeletons are all supine, with upper limbs lying along the sides or on the chest or on the pelvis; lower limbs are usually outstretched. Most of the people were buried directly in the ground, but for the 19.8% of skeletons there was the evidence of the use of shrouds and for the 7.8% the evidence of the use of wooden coffins. All paleodemographic parameters accord with the ones related to pre-industrialized societies: infant death-rate (qx) in children under 5 years of age was high (28.2%) and life expectancy at birth (e0) was of 24 years.
The Lombard population of Dueville was tall (170.9 cm for males and 156.9 cm for females), generally robust and physically homogeneous. The physical type is referable to northern populations. Osteoarthritis was the most common observed pathology for both sexes. Cases of osteomyelitis and osteoperiostitis were observed exclusively in males and they may be associated to infected warfare injuries. Traumas can be observed in 7.8 % of Dueville population and in four cases they can be consider the cause of death.

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MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Uocchie, maluocchie…“. Il Malocchio nel Vallo di Lauro (AV)
by CHIARA SINISCALCHI

Il saggio che qui si va a presentare è stato redatto in seguito alla ricerca condotta nell’autunno 2012 nell’area del Vallo di Lauro (AV) avente come tema il fenomeno del malocchio e le pratiche curative ad esso legate presenti nella zona in questione.
Il testo è suddiviso in quattro paragrafi che andranno via via a presentare la ricerca, la zona interessata dallo studio, le tipologie di pratiche rilevate ed i risultati ottenuti, infine verrà presentata una tabella riepilogativa delle persone incontrate.

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HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

Proselytization in India. An Ethnographic Account of the tribes in North-East India
by RIMAI JOY

Religion as one of the basic institution is a system of beliefs usually involving the worship of supernatural forces or beings which continues to have major influence upon the human society and especially to those individuals or communities who lives a religious life. This paper is an attempt to explain the proselytization in India basing on hill tribes in North-East India. The people had a traditional religion which was a belief in the spirits but during the reign of British in India, Christianity swept over the entire region and these tribal communities has since then embraced Christianity. Christianity is now strongly rooted among these tribal communities. The paper is an outcome of my research to establish the coming of Christianity and the process of conversion among the tribal communities.

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Interrogating Psycho-Social Problems of Muslim Women. The Indian Experience
by INTEKHAB HOSSAIN, SYED ABUL HAFIZ MOINUDDIN

The present paper is an endeavour to examine and emphasize the issues of psycho-social circumstances of Indian Muslim women in sociological perspective with special indication to their socio-economic, employment, educational attainment, rights and privileges, hindrances and restrictions, role and status as well as their multifarious problems from socio-religious stance at empirical context. Emphasis is also given to recognize their social position in textual and contextual spheres i.e., Islam and Muslim society.
The facts and findings presented in this research paper are based on both the secondary sources and primary sources of data. Various relevant in print research references are consulted besides authors’ empirical observations on the community concerned at the micro as well as macro level to produce this paper. The abovementioned issues are empirically examined and discussed based on data available and collected and put the facts alongside in an organized manner.

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An Ethnographic Account of Sudalai Cult, Tamil Nadu, India
by SIMON JOHN

Worshipping of Demon plays a significant role in the folk religious practices of Tamil Nadu, South India. Sudalai – a male folk deity is considered as a chief of all evil spirits by the people in that region and hundreds of temples for Sudalai exist in the southern region of Tamil Nadu. Several rituals, beliefs, customs, oral narratives etc are associated with this religious practice and an annual worshipping festival is celebrated in order to appease the malevolent deity. This descriptive paper is an attempt to document the living folk tradition associated with Sudalai through fieldwork in the natural context in order to understand how oral myths form the rituals and in what way myths are ritualized.

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Indigenous Knowledge System Associated with Hunting among the Padams of Arunachal Pradesh, India
by QUEENBALA MARAK, JINTU KALITA

Hunting refers to the art of searching and killing of wild animals by using different tools and techniques, and by application of different strategies. It refers not only to the killing of animals for game as was done by kings and noblemen, but also for the safety of people from predators, and most commonly as a form of acquiring food for consumption. As a method of food acquisition, it is one of the oldest forms of traditional practices; and it is assumed that humans have learnt the art of hunting long before they learnt to domesticate animals and plants and built houses.

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De-skilling in Handloom Sector. A study of the handloom Weavers of Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh in India.
by TANUSREE SHAW, ARNAB DAS

This paper examines the effect of capitalist control and technological changes in the handloom industry of Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Karl Marx and Harry Braverman’s concept of deskilling is one of the consequences of the capitalistic control and technological changes and it studied theoretically and empirically in the field area. Deskilling is a feature of the labour process theory and it is a process that gives rise to alienation of labour. The handloom industry of Varanasi is dominated by the system of monopoly capitalism where Merchant/Master weaver/Gaddidar controls over the labour process. The ‘logic’ of capitalist production requires the constant transformation of the techniques of producing. This involves increasing mechanization and automation and as a corollary, the displacement of skills. In Varanasi, such mechanization and automation has taken place. As a result the artisan becomes deskilled and loss of job from the traditional handloom industry.

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The Tree of Life Design. From Central Asia to Navajoland and Back (with a Mexican Detour). Part 2
by SANDRA BUSATTA

The Tree of Life is an archetype that appears in art and literature the world over, from the Biblical Garden of Eden with its Tree of Life and Tree of Knowledge, to India, where the symbol is represented by a voluptuous woman with her arm around a tree that blossoms with flowers. In China it can be seen in ancient “money trees” made of precious metals and adorned with fantastical animals. Let’s examine now the concept’s incarnation in Mexico.

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Dialogo tra Epistemologia Clinica ed Epistemologia antropologica
by MAURIZIA TINTI

Il viaggio può assumere funzioni diverse se osservato all’interno delle discipline psicoterapeutica e antropologica: da un lato è un tipo di cura, mentre dall’altro permette lo studio di culture altre. Questo confronto introduce la comparazione tra l’esperienza della follia e quella della cultura, analizzate attraverso lo sguardo critico di Foucault e della critica post-moderna in antropologia. Esperienze, queste, che hanno in comune il fatto di essere il prodotto di discorsività “scientifiche”, positiviste, che hanno assunto un certa autorità nel parlare di determinate alterità – il medico con il “suo” folle e l’antropologo con il “suo” selvaggio –, e che sono state esperite lungo la storia delle due discipline, particolarmente in età moderna, quando stabilirono il loro apparato epistemologico e metodologico. Con la post-modernità, si realizzò quindi una svolta epistemologica secondo cui il ricercatore e l’analisi da lui prodotta non possono essere oggettivi: tanto la soggettività dello studioso quanto quella dell’oggetto di analisi contribuiscono a modificare il contesto e l’interazione tra i soggetti. La psicoterapia e l’antropologia verranno quindi considerate sul piano fenomenologico, e la produzione di sapere diverrà polifonica e condivisa.

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HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

Coltivare le Stelle. La Società del Tabacco nella cultura Crow
by MARCO MENICOCCI

Riferendosi alle pratiche rituali dei Crow connesse con il culto del Tabacco, Lowie, l’etnologo cui dobbiamo la maggior parte dei documenti su questo popolo, dichiara: “In short the Tobacco ceremony resembles not a unified plot but rather a chain of casually coupled episodes from the tribal repertory” (Lowie 1935: 296). Il culto del Tabacco (ma Lowie si guarda dal definirlo “culto” o “rito”) sarebbe solo una somma disorganica di tratti comuni ad altre cerimonie, messi insieme in modo più o meno arbitrario. In effetti Lowie ha una considerazione simile praticamente di tutte le cerimonie dei Crow, compresa ad esempio la Sun Dance, e questa posizione è coerente con la sua valutazione della religione complessiva di questo popolo, che giudica poco sviluppata, confusa, incoerente. Nonostante l’affetto che indubbiamente provava per i Crow, Lowie non può fare a meno di considerare, sotto l’aspetto religioso, i Crow “carenti” rispetto ad altri popoli delle Pianure, compresi i vicini Hidatsa, un popolo affine da cui i Crow si sono separati nella metà del XVIII secolo e con il quale si considerano imparentati.

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