These skirmishes led to more expansive military campaigns, settlement, and ultimately conquest of large swathes of the British Isles. But Dr Steve Ashby, of the Department of Archaeology at the University of York, wanted to explore the social justifications for this spike in aggressive activity.
Previous research has considered environmental, demographic, technological and political drivers, as well as the palpable lure of silver and slave and why these forms of wealth became important at this stage.
Dr Ashby said: “I wanted to try to discover what would make a young chieftain invest in the time and resources for such a risky venture. And what were the motives of his crew?”
MIAMI – New research reveals that some of the earliest civilizations in the Middle East and the Fertile Crescent may have been affected by abrupt climate change. These findings show that while socio-economic factors were traditionally considered to shape ancient human societies in this region, the influence of abrupt climate change should not be underestimated.
A team of international scientists led by researchers from the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science found that during the first half of the last interglacial period known as the Holocene epoch, which began about 12,000 years ago and continues today, the Middle East most likely experienced wetter conditions in comparison with the last 6,000 years, when the conditions were drier and dustier.
Ali Pourmand (left) and Ph.D. candidate Arash Sharifi visually inspect the physical properties of a sediment core collected from NW Iran. This meter-long core recorded the environmental condition of the region for the past 2000 years. Credit: Diana Udel, UM Rosenstiel School Communications Office
Rapid phases of warming climate played a greater role in the extinction of megafauna in the Late Pleistocene than did human activity, a new study shows. The study helps to inform the debate about what killed off megafaunal species (or animals over 100 pounds) during the last glacial period – a subject that is highly debated, with some scientists pointing to human hunting and land alteration, and others to climate change.
Progress on the debate has been hindered by reliance on fossil evidence in lieu of studies of ancient DNA, which could shed more light on the timing of major animal population changes, like migration or extinction events. Here, to parse out the roles for human activity or changing climate in the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction, Alan Cooper and colleagues used a combination of ancient DNA and detailed paleoclimate data.
They evaluated DNA from megafaunal species, looking back over more than 50,000 years of DNA records for extinction events. The researchers compared information on megafauna extinctions to records of severe climate events in the Late Pleistocene obtained through Greenland ice cores and other sources.
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International collaboration uncovers proof of earliest small-scale agricultural cultivation
Until now, researchers believed farming was “invented” some 12,000 years ago in the Cradle of Civilization — Iraq, the Levant, parts of Turkey and Iran — an area that was home to some of the earliest known human civilizations. A new discovery by an international collaboration of researchers from Tel Aviv University, Harvard University, Bar-Ilan University, and the University of Haifa offers the first evidence that trial plant cultivation began far earlier — some 23,000 years ago.
The study focuses on the discovery of the first weed species at the site of a sedentary human camp on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. It was published in PLOS ONE and led by Prof. Ehud Weiss of Bar-Ilan University in collaboration with Prof. Marcelo Sternberg of the Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants at TAU’s Faculty of Life Sciences and Prof. Ofer Bar-Yosef of Harvard University, among other colleagues.
The original Americans came from Siberia in a single wave no more than 23,000 years ago, at the height of the last Ice Age, and apparently hung out in the north – perhaps for thousands of years – before spreading in two distinct populations throughout North and South America, according to a new genomic analysis.
The findings, which will be reported in the July 24 issue of Science, confirm the most popular theory of the peopling of the Americas, but throws cold water on others, including the notion of an earlier wave of people from East Asia prior to the last glacial maximum, and the idea that multiple independent waves produced the major subgroups of Native Americans we see today, as opposed to diversification in the Americas.
This Ice Age migration over a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska is distinct from the arrival of the Inuit and Eskimo, who were latecomers, spreading throughout the Arctic beginning about 5,500 years ago.
Antrocom: Online Journal of Anthropology invites proposals written regarding cultural, linguistic, and physical anthropology, and archaeology. Interdisciplinary papers from other fields that focus on a sociocultural topic are also welcome. Submissions may include papers written for classes or independently, as well as book reviews and other scholarly work.
Proposals are to be submitted by mail by (September 15th, 2015). Proposals may not be accepted after this date. The proposals must be sent only to redazione [@] antrocom.net.
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Proposals will be reviewed by committee. All presenters will be notified.
Antrocom: Online Journal of Anthropology accetta proposte riguardanti antropologia culturale, linguistica e fisica e archeologia. Documenti interdisciplinari provenienti da altri campi che si concentrino su un argomento socio-culturale sono i benvenuti. I documenti presentati possono includere lezioni preparate per le classi o in modo indipendente, così come recensioni di libri e altro lavoro accademico.
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1. Preparare un abstract di non più di 250 parole in inglese. Un abstract di ricerca contiene lo scopo, la metodologia, i risultati dello studio e / o le conclusioni (o può concentrarsi su qualsiasi fase dello studio). Un abstract creativo può essere informativo, descrittivo o critica e contenere una tesi e / o una conclusione.
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Antrocom: Online Journal of Anthropology is an on-line review concerning Anthropology, open both to cultural and to physical anthropology, and to the correlated disciplines. The review was first issued in March 2005 from within the Community of Anthropos and is edited by the Antrocom Association.
Antrocom: OJoA will accept and review submissions in Italian, English and French from any author, in any global locality.
A body of international peers will review all submissions, with potential author revisions as recommended by reviewers, with the intent to achieve published papers that:
- Relate to the field of physical anthropology and cultural anthropology (in its broader domain as a discipline);
- Represent new, previously unpublished work;
- Advance the state of knowledge of the field;
- Are conformed to a high standard of scholarly presentation.
The deadline for the next number (volume 10, number 1, June 2014) is April, 15th, 2014. Articles can be sent to redazione [at] antrocom.net.