Antrocom Online Journal of Anthropology



ISSN 1973-2880

volume 8, number 2, 2012

volume 8, number 2, 2012

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Analysis of Objects in Migratory Process of Identity Building in Transnational Migration Contexts
by JONATHAN NANI’ LA TERRA

This paper proposes a methodological challenge in an attempt to provide new ways of looking at transnational phenomena, convinced of the need to seek new types of multi-sited research, interested in following and reconstruct the movement of people, objects and cultures. The article problematizes the real feasibility and the academic benefits of a research focused on the analysis and monitoring of objects used in rites and ceremonies in transnational migration contexts, promoting a new way of understanding the migration context that break the classical dichotomy destination/origin or community of origin/community of migrants abroad. Then I propose a new concept, the migratory between-space, with the intent to enrich the context of migration and to not let into oblivion one of the essential elements in the study of transnational migration, represented by the trip and the perception that migrants have about.

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HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

Origine e sviluppo dei culti afro-brasiliani
by GILBERTO MAZZOLENI

Nel 1584 Cristovão de Gouveia scriveva dal Brasile al Generale dell’ordine dei Gesuiti: “Nelle fattorie e nelle piantagioni ci sono moltissimi schiavi che non hanno mai ascoltato la Messa, anche se vi sono sacerdoti che la celebrano, e questo perché le chiese sono piccole e gli schiavi son soliti girare nudi; e, per il cattivo odore, i loro padroni, i portoghesi, non li lasciano stare né dentro né fuori dalla chiesa. (…) Questi schiavi non hanno che il nome di cristiani e quasi tutti sono idolatri. Essi non si potranno salvare così, se non saranno coltivati ed educati meglio alla nostra fede”. Non si tratta di una testimonianza isolata: alcuni anni dopo un altro visitatore, Padre Antonio Gomes, lamenta la scarsa opera di indottrinamento degli schiavi e la loro poca consuetudine con gli uffici religiosi: “Le chiese sono piccole e i bianchi li lasciano fuori trattandoli come cani. Inoltre, siccome la Messa si dice tardi, gli schiavi oppressi dal lavoro e dalla fame di tutta una settimana, vanno a pescare e a cacciare”.

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Revisiting the conceptualization of “Turks” in Bulgaria
by GABRIELA FATKOVA’

The impact of tourism in a society is a complex and varied subject. It is generally agreed that tourism results in both positive and negative impacts for hosts of tourism destinations. There is a need to study hosts perceptions of tourism because local stakeholders are the ones who are most directly affected by tourism. The present study specifically examines the views of the hosts in ‘business’ at beach tourism in India. The study adopted the qualitative research approach to understand the viewpoint of the hosts concerning tourism activities in Digha. The analysis resulted in the emergence of the four major themes including livelihood, administration, entertainment and closet services. The findings exposes that the hosts perceived tourism as one component of a larger system of growth and development within the area. Furthermore, hosts recognize the complex nature of tourism impacts and identify several indirect and induced impacts resulted from tourism activities. The work ultimately explores the gamut of the varied but changing cultural representation of the hosts’ vis-à-vis guests, the continuity and change in the hosts’ perception and other relevant issues of local tourism development.

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PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

The study of Allelic Frequency of ABO and Rh D Blood Group among the Banjara Population of Akola District, Maharashtra, India
by ARAVIND CHAVHAN, RAJUSING JADHAO, SANTOSH PAWAR

The distribution of ABO blood groups and Rh (D) factor has been studied in the Banjara population. In the present study O, A, B, and AB blood group percentages of Banjaras of Akola district of Maharashtra are recorded as 27.64%, 22.91%, 37.45% and 12% respectively and the Rh negative incidences recorded as 02.55%. The allelic frequencies of O, A, B and AB groups in the combined data of same community found to be 0.5196, 0.2880, and 0.1924 respectively and Rh (D) positive as 0.8405.

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I rituali funerari in epoca romana. Studi storico-archeologici e archeozoologici
by GIUSEPPINA COLONNELLI, MARCO MANNINO

Il presente lavoro vuole essere una riflessione nata da anni di attività di scavo e studio storico-archeologico, antropologico e archeozoologico, effettuati all’interno del territorio del Comune di Roma.
Il carattere interdisciplinare di questi studi ha permesso di poter dare un contributo ad una ricostruzione più coerente ed omogenea dei rituali funerari in epoca romana confermando, in molti casi, le notizie tramandateci dalle fonti storiche.

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The Catacomb Mummies of Sicily. A State-of-the-Art Report (2007-2011)
by DARIO PIOMBINO-MASCALI, FRANK MAIXNER, ALBERT R. ZINK, SILVIA MARVELLI, STEPHANIE PANZER, ARTHUR C. AUFDERHEIDE

The large number of mummies stored in several churches and crypts on the island of Sicily represents a unique opportunity to investigate lives, lifestyles, nutrition, disease, and funeral customs of a large sample of individuals dating from the late 16th to the mid-20th century. Within the framework of the “Sicily Mummy Project” we performed scientific studies on four mummy collections, and gathered information on their historical and archaeological context. This paper will provide an overview of the technical and cultural aspects of mummification in Sicily and of the new relevant data obtained so far through the investigation of this precious bioanthropological resource.

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HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

Rabbinic Discourse, Law and the Culture of Opposition
by GEOFFREY SKOLL

A style of discourse associated with a rabbinic tradition in Judaism exemplifies a core oppositional process of the persistent identity system of Jewish culture. Based in an interpretation of law as represented by Torah and Talmud, this style of discourse undermines central reifications of the Greco-Roman-Christian tradition, which constitutes the historical framework for contemporary Western cultural hegemony. A central precept is that identity is contingent and not, as in the predominant Western tradition, something that is natural, transcendent, and absolute. The implicit critique of Western identity allows rabbinic discourse to deconstruct and challenge the authority of law and governmentality.

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Socio-Cultural Factors Affecting Family Size between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh
by EMAJ UDDIN, TANZIMA ZOHRA HABIB, SAYEED AKHTER

Family size in a particular society depends on marriage, family composition and adoption norms. It also depends upon modes of production, technological and socio-cultural forces. First purpose of this paper was to describe and compare family size (as a dependent variable) and socio-cultural factor (as an independent variable) between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh. Second purpose of the paper was to examine how socio-cultural factors influence family size between the communities in rural Bangladesh. In so doing, 70 couples from Muslim and 30 couples from Santal communities from Kalna village, Tanore Upazila, Rajshahi, Bangladesh were randomly selected. Based on structural questionnaire method, including interview technique our descriptive findings, especially percentages suggested that family size, including usual family size, ideal family size, actual family size, expected family size, adoption practice was different between the two communities in the study area. In addition, results of regression analysis showed that socio-cultural factors, especially family, marriage, socio-economic status, and personal characteristics of the couples were affecting family size between the two communities in rural Bangladesh. The findings may be implied in social policy to change in family size in association with socio-cultural situations of the Muslim and Santal couples in rural Bangladesh.

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Anthropological District. Notes for an anthropological study of the industrial districts
by MICHELE F. FONTEFRANCESCO

The article discusses industrial district theory as objects of anthropological enquiry. Providing a review of the history of studies in industrial anthropology and industrial district theory, the articles explores extended case method and in the multi-sited ethnography as viable methodologies to make industrial district an object of anthropological research practice and epistemology.

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An Investigative Study on School Drop-outs in Tribal Settings. A Case of Three selected Tribes in South Karnataka
by B. R. MANJUNATHA, M. ANNAPURNA

The NPE, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA), 1992, recognized the heterogeneity and diversity of the tribal areas while underlining the importance of instruction through the mother tongue and the need for preparing teaching/learning materials in the tribal languages. A working group on Elementary and Adult Education for the Xth Five Year Plan (2002-07) emphasized the need to improve the quality of education of tribal children and to ensure equity as well as further improving access. In general, the tribes that remain geographically isolated are able to retain their traditional cultures and religions longer. On the other hand communities that are either nomadic or live in the periphery of civilized life are prone for drastic changes. Karnataka has a sizable population of tribal people. There are 34.64 lakhs tribals distributed in various regions of Karnataka as per 2001 census. Their education level still min pathetic condition. This paper is based on study conducted on three important tribes viz; Soliga, Jenukuruba and Betta Kurubas Tribes of chamartjangar district of Karnataka state India

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Effectiveness of Education on Health. A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Muslim and Horizon Communities in Rajshahi Metropolitan City of Bangladesh
by HOSSAIN AFZAL

Education and health are the two very important elements of human capital. Educational knowledge enhances human being to get proper healthcare facilities all over the world. In Bangladesh education and health are the two main fundamental rights of every citizen, which is ensured by the constitution. The present study, the author tried to find out effectiveness of education on health. The purpose of the study was to examine and compare how education influences on health outcome between Muslim and Horizon communities. In this study, total number of 275 (150 for Muslim and 125 for Horizon) respondents were interviewed by the author during April to July, 2012 in the Rajshahi Metropolitan City of Bangladesh. The simple random sampling technique was applied when sample size selected. Various statistical techniques were used during analyzed data, such as mean, median, standard deviation, variance and Pearson correlation with SPSS software in version 15.The present study showed that education was greatly influence over health outcomes. The author found that Muslim community dominated the minor community (Horizon) in the various sphere of life. Most of the respondents studied up to primary level which was 45.09%. 76.73% respondents seemed that proper educational knowledge positively enhanced to get healthy life style. 51.64% respondents seemed that communal destitution is existed to get educational attainment and take healthcare facilities. 68.73% respondents argued that they were concern about family planning methods. 66.18% respondents showed their opinion that educational knowledge made conscious about primary diseases, how and where to take diagnosis and treatment of their suffering diseases. 89.45% respondents expressed their fillings that educational knowledge enhances to get better healthcare facilities.

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MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Broadcast Media Intervention in Mental Health Challenge in Edo State, Nigeria
by OSAKUE STEVENSON OMOERA, PETER AIHEVBA

In most communities, especially in Africa, people with mental health challenges are denigrated; the society is not sympathetic with sufferers of mental illness. A lot of issues can trigger mental illness. These can be stress (economic stress, social stress, educational stress, etc); hereditary factors; war and aggression; rape; spiritual factors, to mention a few. Therefore, there is the need for understanding and awareness creation among the people as one of the ways of addressing the problem. Methodologically, this study deploys analytical, observation and interview techniques. In doing this, it uses the Edo State, Nigeria scenario to critically reflect, albeit preliminarily, on the interventionist role the broadcast media have played/are playing/should play in creating awareness and providing support systems for mentally challenged persons in urban and rural centres in Nigeria. The study argues that television and radio media are very innovative and their innovativeness can be deployed in the area of putting mental health issue in the public discourse and calling for action. This is because, as modern means of mass communication, radio and television engender a technologically negotiated reaching-out or dissemination of information which naturally flows to all manner of persons regardless of their place of abode, class, political, social or religious orientations and persuasions. It further argues that although radio and television can readily provide friendly platforms for people to interact, with the intent of sensitizing and mobilising others to individually or collectively support identified social causes, their potentialities are yet to be fully explored in terms of programming, social responsibility as well as the maintenance of public good, with regard to creating awareness and understanding among the people toward remediating the prevalent problem of mentally challenged persons in Edo State, Nigeria. To reverse this, the study calls for a greater nexusing of the broadcast media and mental health issues, through carefully designed radio and television programmes, to reduce the culturally placed stigma associated with mental illness and remediate the incidences of overt and covert mental health cases in Edo State, Nigeria.

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PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

ABO Blood Group Frequency Distribution among the Tangsas of Arunachal Pradesh, India
by HAOBIJAM VOKENDRO, SONIA S. DEVI

The Tangsa tribe is one of the tribes of Arunachal Pradesh which is home to 26 major tribes. The Tangsa people are residing in different circles, in and around Changlang township of the Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The Changlang district with its headquarters at Changlang was created on 14 November, 1987 by carving out from Tirap district. The word Tangsa is a common name given to a tribe inhabiting this region. The term “Tangsa”, is related with the word Tangshang in Mayanmar (Burma), and it denotes a community of many people in Changlang and Tirap district of Arunachal Pradesh, parts of Tinsukia district of Assam in north east India, and across the border in Sagaing region of Myanmar. The term Tangsa is derived from ‘Tang’ (high land) and ‘sa’ (son) and hence means ‘people of highland’. There are many sub-tribes or group within Tangsa. In this paper an attempt is being made to examine the present blood frequency distribution of Tangsa tribe and compared it with past study of ten tribes.

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Anthropometric Study of Nasal Index of the Kosovo Albanian Population
by GLORIA STAKA, FATMIR DRAGIDELLA, METUSH DISHA

Human nose occurs in many shapes and sizes and ethnic influences my results in different appearances of the nose. Nasal index is an ethnic sensitive anthropometric index. It is an important athropometric parameter for classifying the race and sex of the individual whose identity is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the nasal index of the Kosovo Albanian population. The study sample comprised 204 subjects (101 males and 103 females) aged 18-25 years. Nasal height and nasal width were measured using an electronic digital caliper, with accuracy of 0.01 mm (Boss, Hamburg – Germany). Descriptive statistics showed that Kosovo Albanian males and females had mean nasal index of 67.07 ± 6.67 and 63.87 ± 5.56, respectively. The distribution of the nose types showed leptorrhine to be 76.96 % and dominant type among Kosovo – Albanian population.

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Phylogenetic relationships of Muslim populations of Manipur based on morphogenetic markers
by AHSANA SHAH, MOHD FAREED, RUQAIYA HUSSAIN, MOHAMMAD AFZAL

In the present paper phylogenetic relationships of Muslim populations of Manipur and its genetic relations with Meitei and Naga tribe based on the morphogenetic traits have been attempted. Till date, no biological research has been reported regarding their phylogeny. Muslims with different castes shows differences in the distribution of these morpho-genetic traits, showing differences of ancestor’s origin. On the basis of genetic distances, dendrogram was constructed using UPGMA Clustering method. Sheikh, Syed, Pathan and Moghul settled in Manipur approximately the same time on the basis of their origin. Sheikh and Syed form one common cluster while Moghul and Pathan show another common cluster, reflecting its genetic similarity. Meitei population stand closer to Muslim population than to Naga tribe showing close conformity with the literature reported where Muslims were reported to have arrived in Manipur mostly as sepoys of the king and without female counterpart, and were given permission by the then king to get married with the Meitei women. Meiteis and Nagas belong to the Mongoloid racial stock or are at least more or less genetically influenced by it, can also been seen as they show the presence of morpho-genetic trait characters characteristics to Japanese, Chinese and Tibetans.

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Knowledge and Practice of Menstrual Regulation. An Assessment among the Underprivileged People in Bangladesh
by NASIR UDDIN

Menstruation is seen as both a purifying and polluting event in many cultures, including Bangladesh. While seemingly contradictory, this way of thinking has actually two manifestations of the same concept. Menstruation is valued as a means of regularly flushing “bad blood” from a woman’s body, cleaning the woman, and signifying that she is fertile. Once out of the body, however, menstrual fluids are believed to pollute anything they contract. To limit menstrual pollution, the general movements, religious and household activities of menstruating women have been severely restricted by social proscription1. The present study report is an attempt to assess the menstrual regulation (MR) services for marginalized and underprivileged people in Bogra and Rajshahi Districts in Bangladesh.

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CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Mauritius: Interethnic relations through rice and rum
by SYLVIE MAURER

According to Aristotle, Man is by nature a social being. Undeniably, humans have evolved towards a social and cultural behaviour, thus codifying their eating habits; even though human beings have a vital need to eat and drink, as it is the case for animals. Humanity has therefore, developed a form of identity based on food models. In Mauritius, a multicultural and multiethnic society, there are several food models and eating behaviours. Consequently, people can expect either rejection or acceptance from other ethnic groups that share different food behaviours. Nevertheless, rice and curry are no more subject to ethnic categorisation in Mauritius. That situation is true as well for French territories like La Réunion, Guadeloupe and Martinique. Rum is different, for it is more ethnically associated to a particular ethnic group, the Creole. In this paper, I will first study rice as a marker of identity through various recipes and rum as a marker of personal and ethnic identities. I will show their limits of inclusion and exclusion in Mauritian society by focusing on the Mauritians’ eating and drinking habits. I will explain how, through food patterns, there is not only a search for unity and acceptance but rejection of Otherness as well. Furthermore, food being closely related to nutrition, I will focus on post colonial and food behaviours in modern period in relation to globalisation. This part will shed lights on global food effects in a multiethnic society.

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Intangible Cultural Heritages of Arunachal Pradesh
by RASHMIREKHA SARMA

Intangible cultural heritage includes traditions or living expressions, inherited from our predecessors and transmitted to our successors orally or by gesture, discussed mainly within five broad domains: oral traditions and expressions including language; performing arts; social practices, rituals, festive events; knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe or the knowledge and traditional craftsmanship. Intangible cultural heritage, which only can be experienced, virtually could be anything; objects, songs, stories or skills; are considered important to preserve for future generations, because these create a community’s identity and forming the belongingness to a country, a tradition or a way of life. With 31 indigenous communities with different oral traditions and languages, Arunachal Pradesh, a hill state of India is known to be one of the magnificent multilingual and multicultural indigenous peoples areas of the world. By songs, dances, dresses, rituals or simply the gestures, the people express and maintain their different living styles which make Arunachal Pradesh vivaciously vibrant in the realms of intangible cultural heritages. This paper discusses intangible cultural heritage of Arunachal Pradesh within the arena of its five main domains.

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HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

La carne, il suolo, il tempo. Analisi dei codici alimentari nei primi capitolo della Genesi
by MARCO MENICOCCI

Questo lavoro intende esaminare, da una prospettiva storico-religiosa, i primi capitoli del libro della Genesi, sostanzialmente i passi Gen. 1 – 9y, trattandone le narrazioni allo stesso modo di come si tratta un mito, redatto da un etnologo, contenente un complesso tema mitico appartenente ad un popolo extraeuropeo. Il presupposto, pertanto, è che al di là delle varie fonti e tradizioni presenti, al di là dell’origine cronologica delle varie parti, il testo della Genesi considerato sia unitario, coerente e risultato di una redazione deliberata.

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